Sailing has developed over the years and different parts of the world use customized techniques and anatomy of sails. Some researchers attribute the invention of mankind sail almost the forward wheel, which is understandable – the river served us and sometimes fishing, and communication routes. So many stories about ship development and change of sailing techniques, from Old Greeks and Persians to Vikings further to the discovery of The New World, to the recent wars and cruises.
During trade development, colonization and war, the appearance white sails on the horizon was a symbol of the good news — for someone. For others, it was the symbol of suffering and death.
We decided to explore the the anatomy of the sails from around the world
Chinese lugsail or Sampan rig — a type of sail rig in which rigid members, called battens, span the full width of the sail and extend the sail forward of the mast.
An origin of the name junk rig is not directly recorded, however it is popularly attributed to the name from the traditional Chinese junk ship, where the rig was in use when discovered by Europeans.
The Dhow was invented by Arabs. It’s a generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with lateen sails used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region.
Even to the present day, dhows make commercial journeys between the Persian Gulf and East Africa using sails as their only means of propulsion. Their cargo is mostly dates and fish to East Africa and mangrove timber to the lands in the Persian Gulf. They often sail south with the monsoon in winter or early spring, and back again to Arabia in late spring or early summer.
Historically, spritsails were the first fore-and-aft rigs, appearing in Greco-Roman navigation. The spritsail is a form of three or four-sided, fore-aft sail and its rig.
From the deck, the sail can very readily be set or reduced by very small increments so as to control the power obtained from it. Meanwhile the boom does not project outboard so that the vessel can reach through a narrow gap between moored vessels.
The lateen became the favourite sail of the Age of Discovery, mainly because it allows a boat to tack “against the wind”. It is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, and the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows.
The lateen is used today in a slightly different form on small recreational boats like the highly popular Sailfish and Sunfish, but is still used as a working rig by coastal fishermen in the Mediterranean.
This configuration was developed in Bermuda in the 17th century. The term Bermuda rig refers to a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat.
He received the maximum dissemination boaters due to its aerodynamics and ease of manipulation, so the question of what is better – Bermuda or gaff, can be considered closed.
Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts.
The square rig is the aerodynamically most efficient running rig, and stayed popular on ocean-going sailing ships until the end of the Age of Sail. The last commercial sailing ships, windjammers, were usually square-rigged four-masted barques.